In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to: dysentery tuberculosis smallpox edema Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may

In the Yearly Mortality Bill for 1632, consumption referred to: dysentery tuberculosis smallpox edema Cyclic variations in the occurrence of pneumonia and influenza mortality may reflect: seasonal variations in cases of influenza. the fact that influenza is a disappearing disorder. long-term changes in mortality trends. both A and B Which of the following is usually an aim of epidemiology? To the health status of the population To new public health programs To the etiology of disease To the occurrence of disease To the distribution of disease Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by screening for breast cancer Primary Prevention Active Primary Prevention Passive Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention The difference between primary and secondary prevention of disease is: primary prevention means control of causal factors, while   secondary prevention means control of symptoms. primary prevention means control of acute disease, while   secondary prevention means control of chronic disease. primary prevention means control of causal factors, while   secondary prevention means early detection and treatment of disease. primary prevention means increasing resistance to disease,   while secondary prevention means decreasing exposure to disease. Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk Primary Prevention Active Primary Prevention Passive Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? This is a use primarily for incidence data. This is a use primarily for prevalence data. This application could apply equally for both incidence and   prevalence data. This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data. An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year: Number of skaters in   Metroville during any given month 12,000 Roller-skating   injuries in Metroville 600 Total number of   residents injured from roller-skating 1,800 Total number of   deaths from roller-skating 90 Total number of   deaths from all causes 900 The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was: 90/600 × 100,000 90/100,000 × 100,000 90/1,800 × 100,000 90/900 × 100,000 To provide a direct estimate of the risk of developing a disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? This is a use primarily for incidence data. This is a use primarily for prevalence data. This application could apply equally for both incidence and   prevalence data. This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data. Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the breeder hypothesis for schizophrenia? The conditions of life in lower-class society favor its   development. The conditions of life in upper-class society favor its   development. The illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished   areas of a city. The illness is associated with increases in creative talents,   which contribute to wealth-enhancing achievements. Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the option): provides the basis for planning and evaluation of health   services. allows causal inference from descriptive data. allows comparisons by age, sex, and race. uses case reports, case series, and cross-sectional studies. identifies problems to be studied by analytic methods. A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following? Positive declaration Negative declaration Implicit question Explicit question Which of the following data sources is most likely to provide a representative sample of the general health status of a population? hospital outpatient statistics absenteeism data data from public health clinics a morbidity survey of the general population Cautious use of information from death certificates is warranted because: certificates are not available for everyone who dies certificates are often erroneous for date of death and sex cause of death information may not be correct autopsy results are not included Ecologic studies: are expensive and require a great deal of time to conduct are a good approach for generating hypotheses provide accurate measurements of exposure yield results that can be applied directly to individuals A large medical center’s oncology program reported an increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting data are as follows: DATA Men Women Men Women LIFESTYLE VARIABLE Alcohol 185 120 270 260 Tea Drinking 140 110 230 225 Coffee Drinking 190 140 270 240 Note:   Total number of male cancer patients = 200. Total number of female cancer patients = 150. Total number of male patients (other diseases) = 300. Total number of female patients (other diseases) = 300. Does this study have an exposure status variable? No Yes, lifestyle Yes, disease type Yes, sex of patient In case-control studies, the odds ratio is used as an estimate of the relative risk. In order for this approximation to be reasonable, some conditions must be met. Which of the following conditions is not necessary in order to use the odds ratio to estimate the relative risk? With respect to exposure, controls are representative of the   population to which you want to generalize your results. The event (disease) under study is rare in the population. The exposure in question is rare in the population. Cases are representative of all cases. As an epidemiologist you are going to investigate the effect of a drug suspected of causing malformations in newborn infants when the drug in question is taken by pregnant women during the course of their pregnancies. As your sample you will use the next 200 single births occurring in a given hospital. For each birth a medication history will be taken from the new mother and from her doctor; in addition, you will review medical records to verify use of the drug. [N.B.: These mothers are considered to have been followed prospectively during the entire course of their pregnancies, because a complete and accurate record of drug use was maintained during pregnancy.] Forty mothers have taken the suspected drug during their pregnancies. Of these mothers, 35 have delivered malformed infants. In addition, 10 other infants are born with malfunctions. The number of individuals who both did not take the drug and did not give birth to infants who were malformed was: 140 150 155 160 170 Which of the following individuals ed draw people’s attention to the method of cohort analysis? Snow Frost Graunt Hill A new screening test for Lyme disease is developed for use in the general population. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test are 60% and 70%, respectively. Three hundred people are screened at a clinic during the first year the new test is implemented. Assume the true prevalence of Lyme disease among clinic attendees is 10%. Calculate the following values: The predictive value of a positive test is: 33.0% 18.2% 94.0% 22.2% 6.0% Drs. Poke and Jab (2014) conducted an employee health program that used 5 screening tests at the same time to detect diseases among workers. Which type of program is this? Selective screening Mass screening Ad hoc screening Multiphasic screening Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test refer to its: reliability validity yield repeatability You have just finished administering a food/drink questionnaire to ill and non-ill participants in a Minnesota summer picnic party. The ill individuals developed moderate to severe diarrhea 16 to 46 hours after the picnic. Six persons experienced vomiting. The following data were collected: ATE DID NOT EAT Food item Ill Not ill Total Ill Not ill Total Hot dogs 40 30 70 10 20 30 Hamburgers 32 8 40 20 40 60 Potato salad 45 25 70 15 25 40 Ice cream 48 12 60 2 38 40 Lemonade 20 40 60 20 20 40 Which food item appears to be the most probable vehicle for the salmonella (agent) infection associated with the illness? Hot dogs Hamburgers Potato salad Ice cream Lemonade An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred after an epidemiology department luncheon, which was attended by 485 faculty and staff. Assume everyone ate the same food items. Sixty-five people had fever and diarrhea, five of these people were severely affected. Subsequent laboratory tests on everyone who attended the luncheon revealed an additional 72 cases. Foods served at the luncheon included home-canned olives, chicken salad, homemade flavored drink mix, freshly baked rolls, and raw vegetables. Based on your understanding of foods that potentially are capable of transmitting salmonella, the most likely source of the outbreak was: home-canned olives chicken salad drink mix freshly baked rolls raw vegetables The site where a disease agent enters the body is the: reservoir portal of entry vehicle portal of exit A situation in which the combined effect of several exposures is greater than the sum of the individual effects: threshold latency synergism square It has been suggested that occupational exposure to benzene in the petroleum industry increases the risk of developing leukemia. The levels of benzene to which workers in this industry have been exposed were high from 1940 to 1970, but since 1970 have been significantly reduced. What kind of study design, using petroleum workers, would provide the most useful information on whether benzene affects incidence rates of leukemia in this industry? You may assume that records of individual worker assignments to jobs involving benzene exposure have been maintained by the industry. Experimental Retrospective cohort Prospective cohort Case-control Cross-sectional The type A behavior pattern is hypothesized to be a risk factor for: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease coronary heart disease rheumatoid arthritis retirement Which of the following statements describes a stressful life event? discrepancy between husband and wife in social and educational   status goodness of fit between the characteristics of the person and   environment an occurrence that might cause readjustments in people’s   activities sleeping

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