example of policy brief Defining the Problem Space exploration has been limited since the moon landing to space station visits and the deployment of the

example of policy brief Defining the Problem Space exploration has been limited since the moon landing to space station visits and the deployment of the Hubble telescope and satellites (2015).  In 2012, President Obama signed into law H.R. 312, “The Mars Exploration Act” (2012).  This bill provides funding for the development and deployment of: 1) the “rovers”; 2) deep space transportation for humans; and 3) laboratory and housing facilities on Mars (Robinson & Smith, 2012). May Biblical guidelines: Of course, the Bible says nothing about space exploration.  Government is charged primarily with protecting the inalienable rights of its citizens (Fischer).  HR 312 does not violate these rights.  The Biblical notion of “sphere sovereignty” implies that there are other spheres of society, such as non-profits and industry, which might be considered as participants in space exploration (Monsma, 2008).  In the past, space exploration has been linked to national defense, for fear that other nations would gain the upper-hand in space and use that advantage against American citizens (Neuhaus, 2012).  Since government has a divine mandate to protect its citizens, space exploration might be supported. Constitutional guidelines: The “common defense” portion of the preamble supports passage of this bill.  Article 1 section 8 provides further points of support: the promotion of science and progress, the development of a sound military, and the regulation of commerce with foreign nations. Can Political Feasibility: Generally, the public favors further mars exploration and colonization (Smith, 2014).  The passage of the bill was largely bi-partisan, but a significant Republican minority tried to block passage arguing that the funding was not present for the bill and that the H.R. 312   3 President was merely doing this to distract from criticism of his health care legislation and other scandals (Neuhaus, 2012).  Since passage, some experts have argued that Mars colonization is not obtainable as NASA is currently constructed and has argued for either repeal of HR 312 or significant modification (Richards, 2015). Financial feasibility: Total cost of the bill was estimated at $20.5 billion, according to the Congressional Budget Office (“H.R. 312”).  At the time of passage, Democrats and Republicans were grappling with the debt ceiling crisis (Barnes, 2011). Practical feasibility: The bill was set up to fund NASA efforts for Mars exploration over 20 years.  The major challenge was the development of sufficiently fast and safe space travel for humans (Geyer, 2012).  Rovers have been sent to Mars, so, in effect, Phase 1 has been achieved. Significant challenges exist for phases 2 and 3, however, as NASA grapples with developing the proper technology for long-term space exploration and colonization (Richards, 2015). Should HR 312 passes the May portion of the analysis, with the caveat that government should allow for business and non-profit participation.  The Can portion of the analysis is more challenging, simply because of current levels of deficit spending in the federal government as well as the technological challenges.  Nevertheless, HR 312 represents a legitimate area for government involvement.  Space exploration, if not simply for the sake of military defense, should continue and thus government must be involved.  We are not able to choose ideal times for something as lofty and abstract as space exploration; yet it must remain a national priority. H.R. 312   4 References Barnes, A. (2011).  The Debt ceiling crisis. National Review Online. Retrieved from http://www.nro.com/dc_13 Fischer, K. Biblical principles of government [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online website: https://learn.liberty.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-6267706-dt-content-rid 43218699_1/courses/PADM550_B01_201520/Biblical%20Principles%20of%20Govern For Modules/Weeks 3–7, you are expected to submit a 1 1/2–2-page paper (not including the title page, abstract, and reference page) in current APA format in which the May-Can-Should model is applied in the context of the policy focus in the assigned module/week. Be certain to emphasize a focused analysis of a particular issue chosen from the broader policy concentration for the assigned module/week. You must include citations from: Students often struggle with keeping the analysis needed for these policy briefs to just 2 pages of content at most (not counting the title page and references), and it can be hard to see past one’s choice of wording to discover that there are indeed many ways to say the same thing with less words. Attached are “before and after” samples of the same policy brief; the first was too long and includes edits of how to shorten it, and the second shows the finished product at 2 pages. Review these before writing your first policy brief.

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