2 PAGES need by tomorrow While Bahadori (2014) spends considerable time discussing solid waste treatment strategies (related to sludge and scum generated from the influent

2 PAGES need by tomorrow While Bahadori (2014) spends considerable time discussing solid waste treatment strategies (related to sludge and scum generated from the influent waste stream), it may be easy for us to forget exactly what it is that we are intending to do in this part of the process. Let’s look at this phase of the treatment process from a macro-scaled perspective first, and then dive into the micro-scaled perspectives of the physical and chemical activities related to this phase. First, we must remember that all we have done to this point in the entire treatment process is received the influent waste streams from industry, physically removed some (not all) of the oil and other easily-accessed contaminants, tied up some (not all) contaminants with chemical binding, digested and broken down other contaminants with biological organisms, and then removed as many solids as possible from the system that resulted from those activities (Texas Water Utilities Association [TWUA], 1991). As such, we are now left with a system that is still too heavily loaded with remaining solids that are presently in suspension. These are the solids that did not get physically removed during the physical treatment phase, precipitated out during the chemical treatment phase, digested during the biological treatment phase, or settled out during the secondary settling phase. Consequently, we must find a way to remove these suspended solids that represent a wide cross-section of oils, metals, salts, biological organisms, and general debris from the treatment system (TWUA, 1991; Haas & Vamos, 1995). One of the better demonstrated successful strategies at this point is to intentionally form more sludge (some of which was already removed during the earlier stages of treatment) by forcing these suspended solids to bind with something more, thereby increasing the particle size, specific gravity, and subsequent physical attainability of the solids in the remaining solution. Once this is achieved, the solid particles can then be filtered or pressed out of the suspension, dewatering the solids for ultimate solid waste disposal (TWUA 1991). Understanding this, we can now consider the micro-scaled perspective of this phase of treatment, focusing specifically on dewatering. It is now understandable that, given the earlier stages of treatment (chemical and biological), a larger proportion of dissolved solids (from solution) have been removed, relative to the smaller UNIT VI STUDY GUIDE Designing Solid Waste Management Systems for Industrial and Hazardous Waste MEE 5801, Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title portion of suspended solids (from suspension) in the treatment process. Still, the total solids at this stage can range from 15 to 50% (Water Environment Federation [WEF], 2012).    The traditionally accepted and demonstrated convention is to simply add in commercial polymers to increase the sludge generation within the suspension (sludge conditioning), then either filter or press the sludge to remove the water to create a cake of solids (WEF, 2012). Once the sludge cake is sufficiently dry, it is ready for final disposal characterization through more analytical testing to meet Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) Hazardous Waste Characterization Standards, pursuant to 40CFR 261, and ultimate disposition (Blackman, 2001). Dewatering equipment options can include various drying beds, filter presses, belt presses, screw presses, rotary presses, and centrifuges (WEF, 2012). However, two of the most popular designs for creating cake in industrial processes seem to be the membrane filter sludge press (recessed plate pressure filter) and the three-belt sludge press. The advantages of one technology over the other simply depend upon the external business pressures of how dry the sludge needs to be for the least costly disposal (to reduce the chances of free liquid stabilization charges at a hazardous waste landfill), the time afforded to process the sludge into cake, and the total operational hours available to clear the sludge cake from the press. It has been observed that filter cake requiring greater than 35 percent solids seems to be more cost effective if processed through a filter press (WEF, 2012). As a design, the filter plates (anywhere from 12 to 80 plates) are lined up on a suspended frame and pressed together tightly under air pressure. The liquid is forced through the filter plate sequence with hydraulic pumps, and the filtrate (supernatant) is either sent for final treatment or returned to the holding tank for additional sludge conditioning and re-filtering (TWUA, 1991). With these principles in mind, closely read Bahadori’s (2014) information on solid waste treatment and disposal, and closely consider the concept of dewatering sludge from the process. For the last time, let’s return to our interactive model and design in the solid waste treatment (sludge forming and dewatering) phase of our proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment system. In this unit, we will finish our interactive design model in anticipation of tackling the problem of subsequent solid waste disposal (Unit VII and Unit VIII) generated from the industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility. 1. Click here to access the interactive design model.  2. Closely review the influent laboratory report (lift station) against the effluent laboratory report (pop up report). Notice that you are now able to successfully complete the system design with the final effluent concentrations meeting the established local limits for the municipal WWTP.  3. Use this model in your design work for your course project (proposed industrial and hazardous waste treatment facility) in this unit for the last time in this course. Congratulations on successfully engineering a design for effectively treating the influent industrial and hazardous wastes from various sectors of industry! You just spent the past six units applying theory to a field problem, and solved it for the client. This is precisely what we do as scholar-practitioners of environmental engineering. We will select the solid waste final disposition and disposal strategies to be used in conjunction with this treatment design during our la

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